The Rise of New Anglia
At one time the New Anglian Kingdom was just one of many human states formed as a result of the Great Upheaval and the Diaspora. From the 23rd Century onward the colonies expanded and New Anglia, with its resource wealth and the added blessing of a second natural Earth-like planet in its sector - New Scotland - became the leading polity of the area. Eventually, through the 25th and 26th Centuries, the populations of the Bavarian and New Colombian sectors were integrated into the Kingdom in light of growing conflict with the Thanagarians as well as some low-level conflicts with the most aggressive states of the Dorei. The 29th Century proved the most aggressive, as Thanagar and New Anglia warred over resource systems in the Ionia-Thanagar Sector; even Latium and Ionia became battlegrounds in the Thanagarian Wars. The constant conflict with the winged, humanoid race bred a sort of grudging admiration in the two races for one another, though neither would budge with control of the vital resources of the Ionia Sector at question. Periods of truce inevitably led to further clashes, with the Thanagarian Empire at its height threatening New Anglia itself.
But none were ready for what happened in the 30th Century. From nowhere the Dilgrud, a savage alien race further along the Periphery of known space from New Anglia, arose to challenge all of these races. The Trill fell first, being conquered in 2940, and then the Dorei would succumb after a twenty-five year long war that ended with their subjugation in 2945, resulting in the mass enslavement of both races. Only Thanagar and New Anglia, which were still recovering from their own century of warfare, remained to stand against the Dilgrud. In 2950 the Dilgrud launched what was to be their final war of conquest against their neighbors, overrunning Thanagar's remaining colonies and assaulting the planet itself in a fell swoop. New Anglia, unwilling to stand by and permit the Dilgrud to become so powerful, went to war on behalf of their erstwhile foes.
The First Dilgrud War would last for 14 years. It was a pitiless, savage conflict. The Dilgrud believed in no mercy for their enemies; you surrendered and obeyed their commands or you perished, while the New Anglians were increasingly incensed by the savage atrocities rendered against the Dorei, Trill, and even now the Thanagarians by the Dilgrud - to Anglian sensibilities, the Thangarians, while warlike, had still be an honorable and humane foe, while the Dilgrud slaughtered all that would not be enslaved. The Dilgrud, fresh from their victory over Thanagar, commenced their invasion of Anglian space, attacking Ionia and New Bangladesh in the same sector while also advancing into the worlds of New Wales. Dilgrud raiding attacks, utilizing off-network hyperspace travel, ranged as far as New Anglia itself, where a surprise terror bombing attack on the 18th of August 2950 slaughtered four million New Anglians with the utter atomic destruction of the cities of Prestingham, Norwich, and Clarington on the Southern Continent (planetary defenses managed to prevent the intended attack on New Chatham and Westminster).
The first half decade of the war was a desparate time. The Ionian Worlds fell one by one through 2951 into 2952. Thirty million New Bangladeshi were exterminated by Dilgrud authorities in their attempt to force surrender of the last active Army units on the planet. A fleet battle at Sydney in the New Wales Sector saw twenty major metropolitan cities destroyed by planetary bombardment, with a death toll exceeding one hundred million souls. The Dilgrud fleet was massive and powerful, the Royal Navy struggling to gather itself. King George XIV, a navy admiral before his ascension to the throne, went as far as to recall from Army service his brother Prince George the Duke of York and to name him Regent, heading off to reclaim a command post in the Navy. He would be present at the great Battle of New Wales in 2954 when the Royal Navy finally, at great cost, broke the power of the Emperor's Armada of Dilgrud, inflicting great loss on the Dilgrud through superior tactics. Commanding the fleet from the HMS Churchill, the King was mortally wounded after his battle squadron ended up in the thick of the battle and the Churchill struck dozens of times by Dilgrud fire. George XIV died from his wounds twelve hours after the battle.
His brother, Prince George, took the throne and his brother's regnal name, reigning as George XV. He immediately appointed his elderly grand uncle the Duke of Prestwick as Regent and returned to his Army command. With the victory at New Wales the Dilgrud naval fleet was broken for the moment, but the Ionian worlds and those of the Trill and Dorei remained to be liberated. Through 2955 the New Anglians launched limited counter-attacks, liberating New Bangladesh and Latium but marshalling strength to make a major push elsewhere. On 2 February 2956, the New Anglian fleets arrived not over Thanagar, where the Dilgrud expected them, but over Doreia and Trill. King George XV personally led the Army invasion of Doreia, commanding forces in the Darnis campaign to reclaim the capital of Lushan. While inspecting troops at the front, George XV's position was subjected to a vigorous attack by Dilgrud forces. The official history and numerous eyewitness accounts claim the King personally directed the defense of the position and led the successful counter-attack that broke the enemy assault, during which he was wounded fatally by weapon fire. Some historians have since expressed skepticism of this account, using some of the conflicting eyewitness accounts and some records of the locations of the fighting to argue that George XV was not leading a counterattack but was in a defensive position when struck by enemy fire. Regardless of the truth, the King's death in battle electrified the populace of New Anglia and indeed the wider galaxy. The twelve year old son of King George XV, Prince William Harold, was crowned as King George XVI, and his reign would last through the entirety of the "Dilgrud Wars" period.
The liberations of Doreia and Trill were, at great cost, successful. The Battle of Ji'Doreia in the same sector was another great victory for the Royal Navy of New Anglia, under the command now of Prince William the Duke of Gloucester (uncle to the two slain Kings, grand-uncle to George XVI), and enabled the liberation of the entire sector, with it the colonies of both the Trill and Dorei, by the end of 2957. A Dilgrud naval counterstroke in 2957 resulted in the Battle of Trill, where the Duke of Gloucester's forces again prevailed, opening the way for a resumption of the offensive the following year. In 2958 the liberation of Thanagar commenced, followed immediately by the clearing of the rest of the sector of Dilgrud forces. Another three bloody years passed before all the Dilgrud positions here were rooted out, in fighting that proved exhorbitantly expensive in lives, especially in the Thanagarian population.
At this point eleven years of warfare had left both parties exhausted. But the Dilgrud were unwilling to sue for peace. They spent the rest of 2962 gathering their fleet in strength while indulging in skirmishes with the Royal Navy along the border systems. In 2963, with their fleet having been rebuild in the six years since the Battles of Ji'Doreia and Trill, the Dilgrud tried again, launching a naval armada toward Thanagar.
The Royal Navy would intercept them at Latium; there the massive Battle of Latium was waged, one of the largest naval battles of all time, with hundreds of combatants on each side. For two days the fleets engaged, withdrew, and engaged again, trying to attain a superior position to keep the other from withdrawing when pressed. Finally Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock, commanding the war fleet, used a calculated risk to lure the Dilgrud fleet close to one of the moons, making them think they had isolated a contingent of his fleet to destroy and weaken the whole force. The maneuver succeeded; the trap sprung and the Dilgrud fleet was trapped against the moon, battered ferociously by the Royal Navy until their utter destruction. The Dilgrud refused to surrender and not one ship escaped. The might of the Dilgrud fleet had been annihilated, not to threaten New Anglia again for thirty years. With their defeat at Latium, the Dilgrud Emperor finally did what was to his people the unthinkable: he sued for peace. Massive reparations were demanded by the New Anglians and the alien races they had liberated and the Dilgrud, faced with destruction, had no choice but to accept. The First Dilgrud War thus ended by what was called the Hyperspace Treaty, as the Dilgrud refused to agree to a face-to-face negotiation and insisted on negotiations by hypercom.
New Anglia needed peace. The cost of war had been astronomical in currency and lives. Economically the Exchequer was exhausted and the Star Kingdom in debt to banks of the UN and other states. Fourteen years of warfare and the requisite mobilization had distorted the Anglian economy and would leave it spending ten years in recovery, a recovery that proved short-lived due to the disasterous economic policies of the Liberal-Labour Coalition of Prime Minister Sir Stafford Cresting in 2968-2978 which, in their attempt to stimulate the economy through government spending and a rise in taxation, instead deepened the massive debt of the Exchequer and retarded the shift to a peacetime economy.
Though the peace did at least give the economy chance to recover, it also proved bittersweet. The Dilgrud Empire still stood and none of its leaders were brought to a justice that the New Anglian people demanded. The butchery of the war, including the deliberate attacks on civilian targets, had killed five billion Anglians, three quarters of these deaths coming in the worlds directly occupied by the Dilgrud or subjected to prolonged attack by them. The blood price for the Human population of New Anglia was actually the lowest; the Trill, Dorei, and Thanagarians had suffered the worst. Sixteen years of Dilgrud rule had reduced a Trill population of sixteen billion in two major systems to nine and three quarters billion. The Dorei, through their own quarter-century war with the Dilgrud followed by eleven years of subjugation, had gone from a vibrant population of twenty-six billion to just under fifteen billion, including the annihilation of the five billion strong Dorei population of the Astranai System, reduced to a mere five million at war's end. The Thanagarians suffered most of all in terms of proportion; from a population of fourteen billion to a mere four billion, ten billion fatalities due to the sheer brutality of the Dilgrud occupation countered by the relentless Thanagarian resistance. The Thanagarian colony on Drakpa was completely exterminated during the war, and with their planet so greatly depopulated the Thanagarians never really restored themselves there; Drakpa was instead settled by Human colonists and would become Hansom's Planet.
The sheer quantity of deaths and the destruction of so many cities, so many industries, also spelled the end of the independence of the three races. The Anglians were the only intact state that could support them, and none could remain independent with any feasibility. The Thanagarians, who suffered the most, responded the most quickly when, in 2960, the remains of their government proclaimed George XVI to be the Emperor of Thanagar, with all the surviving Thanagarian nations and clans swearing fealty to the Anglian Crown. The Dorei monarchies would gradually, over the course of the time period of 2958 to 2970, swear their fealty to King George XVI, until finally in 2970 the Dorei Federation of Nations' legislature passed a constitutional amendment that dissolved the Council of State and the Presidency-General that once governed them and proclaimed George XVI as "Emperor of the Dorei", granting him the authority to act as Head of State personally or through a Governor-General that would determine the formation of governments. The Dorei Federation later voted to dissolve itself in 2982 by accepting the Imperial Integration Act of 2981 and the different rights and systems for republics and monarchies. The Trill Commonwealth proved the hardest to integrate; though particularly hard-hit, the Trill attempted to re-assert independence, signing only mutual-defense treaties and asssistance agreements with New Anglia for the first thirty years after the war. But with the election of the "Imperial Union" Government in Westminster in the General Election of 2986 and the Sampson Memorandum (named for Foreign Secretary Lord Sampson) the Trill Assembly, realizing that without New Anglia it was helpless against the Dilgrud, sullenly accepted the inevitable, passing a constitutional amendment that paved the way for the Sampson-Kahn Agreement of 2987 by which George XVI, and his eventual heirs, were recognized as "Sovereigns of the Trill Commonwealth" and governing the induction of the Trill into the Empire.
Such were the results of the First Dilgrud War. In total, the war claimed over thirty-three billion lives (only 800 million of them Dilgrud). This sobering fact kindled the anger of all four races; the Dilgrud might have given up their conquests, but they were still intact. Justice had not been done and the Dilgrud may very well return one day to finish the job.
The Dilgrud Empire did not take defeat kindly. They had never known defeat by aliens before. The very fact they were defeated led to the extirpation of several lines of their nobility who had fielded commanders in the war and the assassination of the Emperor Djakaedan, who signed the Hyperspace Treaty. His son Takrainian claimed the throne afterward and his first thought was on vengeance. The entire Dilgrud Empire focused its efforts upon rebuilding its navy and training new officers to operate it. Some advances in firepower were incorporated and the Dilgrud Empire bankrupted itself importing materials for a maximized warfleet construction done in other states, particularly the Bragulan Empire, as they sought to obscure their buildup from the Anglians - especially as it violated the Hyperspace Treaty. Tau exiles assisted in the design of newer, bigger warships to counter the 'dreadnoughts" that had turned the tide at New Wales, Ji'Doreia, and Latium.
In 2993, the Dilgrud Empire was back in full force. The Emperor's Great Armada numbered one thousand combatants, one of the mightiest fleets to ever be assembled. With this force at his command Takrainian found himself in the perfect position to assault the Anglians, who were still in economic recovery, and on 29 July 2993 the Dilgrud fleet kicked off the Second Dilgrud War.
The Second War was not as bloody as the first in sheer deaths but it did cause rampant bloodshed. From 2993 to 2995 the Dilgrud Fleet and the Anglian Royal Navy fought multiple battles in the Trill-Dorei and Ionian Sectors. Four Battles of Hansom's Planet, Three Battles of Astranai, and even a Battle of New Columbia from a Dilgrud attempt to outflank the Royal Navy and attack its heartland. The naval battles were fast and furious; one fleet would catch the other in an inferior position, shots would be fired, and the inferior side would withdraw to safe distance. The Dilgrud sought to force the Royal Navy to commit to battle by using orbital bombardments, but here the march of technology thwarted Dilgrud strategy: planet-based deflector shields designed by Anglian scientists after the surprise attacks of the last war worked as desired, forcing the Dilgrud to devote hours of energy weapon fire to scour cities as they used to do with casual ease. This complicated the Dilgrud naval strategy; if they took up bombardment formation, they exposed themselves to being attacked successfully by Royal Navy elements, but if they couldn't threaten effective bombardment then they had no way to try and force battle with numerically inferior Royal Navy forces. Planetary invasions were attempted, providing much of the actual civilian bloodshed in the war, but none bore any fruit. With the last occupations in living memory the populations of invaded planets fought to the death rather than surrender.
By 2995 the Dilgrud Empire's Great Armada had gained them nothing but casualties and spiraling costs. It was in the this year of the war that again the Royal Navy humiliated the Dilgrud. Having been rebuilt by five years of construction to full strength, the Grand Fleet set out to give the Dilgrud the decisive battle they wanted, though this time in Dilgrud space. Under the command of Admiral Sir Oliver Crowninshield, the Grand Fleet entered the Maktur System and drew the Great Armada into a massive battle, even larger than the Battle of Latium. For eighteen hours eight hundred Anglian warships and seven hundred Dilgrud vessels clashed. The Dilgrud finally had a chance to test their new Tau "battle barges" against the dreadnoughts of the Anglian Navy. But the Anglians had integrated their new refined energy shield technology into their capital ships, and the leading squadrons proved more resilient to fire through this. Havving battered the Dilgrud fleet down, Crowninshield maneuvered his opposite into a position that placed him in the gravity well of a gas giant of the Maktur system; there the Royal Navy, for the second time in half a century, utterly extirpated a Dilgrud fleet from existance. For his victory, the system of Maktur was named for Admiral Crowninshield, who was also elevated to the peerage and given the title Viscount Crowninshield.
The battle broke the Dilgrud Empire completely. Most estimates show their remnant fleet barely numbered two hundred ships. Their best admirals and officers were now all dead. Even worse, the Anglians were gaining allies; skirmishes had even been had with Byzantine Imperium forces ranging far from home, with the Imperium demanding the Dilgrud exterminate their new Tau population or be subjected to a Crusade by the Imperium. Emperor Takrainian, flustered and broken with his defeats and desperate to preserve himself and not be killed like his father, found the Tau made an acceptable scapegoat. He accused them of betraying the Dilgrud to the Anglians and thus costing the Dilgrud the war; in a twelve hour orgy of bloodletting had their entire exile community on Dilgrudar slaughtered, images of their rotting bodies relayed by hypercom signal to Byzantine Terra.
The Tau didn't go down without a fight, however; their scientists had, as a failsafe, engineered a bio-virus that would soon grow to ravage the population of Dilgrudar, even claiming Emperor Takrainian's life. As he lay dying and sick, Takrainian - without the fear of assassination having weight - agreed to dispatch a team to negotiate with the Anglians.
The terms were harsh. The Dilgrud would have to turn over their entire fleet to New Anglia and deactivate their shipyards. They were to be barred from having more than 100 vessels, the type of which the New Anglians would agree to. New Anglian vessels were to have undisputed access to Dilgrud space and mining colonies in the two sectors of space remaining to the Dilgrud, beyond their own home sector, would be turned over to Anglian control. Takrainian affixed his imperial seal to the treaty, knowing that with the Tau virus ravaging his people they had no hope of resistance, and died two hours later. His nephew Budorian took the throne, then contracted the plague and died four months later, becoming the first of six Emperors to reign shortly and die over the next year. In that single year, the entire Imperial household of Dilgrudar was ravaged by plague (as the Tau had specifically engineered it to target the Dilgrud elite genetically), the result of which meant that the surviving Emperor, a middle-aged man named Jugorian, was four generations removed from Takrainian.
The Peace of 2996, as it was called, did not prove popular in the Anglian Kingdom. Many Anglians believed the time had been ripe to put an end to the Dilgrud, regardless of the Kingdom's economic shape, and the result broke the Imperial Union coalition and led to the downfall of the Government a year after the treaty, when the Parliament gave a vote of no confidence after a relatively minor issue regarding national debt repayments. The 2998 General Election resulted in a hung Parliament and a partial restoration of the Imperium Union party, the Liberal and Conservative Parties forming a government under Lord Sampson that enacted the terms of the treaty. As things went, the Peace of 2996 did more good than harm. It permited New Anglia to avoid further economic damage from a wartime footing and acceptance of the terms opened up the way for great resource infusions from the Dilgrud sectors, as the Dilgrud cultural mentality toward exploiting brute labor as an expression of power had retarded their development of extraction technology that permitted the mining of harder-to-reach but more valuable minerals from asteroids, planetoids, and moons. As the fourth millennium dawned, New Anglia's rise to interstellar power had been assured.
Nevertheless, the bloodshed of the First War and the knowledge that the Dilgrud had started the Second War hoping to conquer had made permanent peace impossible to consider. Anglians of most political stripes believed it a matter of time before the next war broke out. And in 3013, they got their chance. The Dilgrud had, under the treaty, partially rebuilt their fleet for defensive purposes. When a relatively new race, the Ethereans, of an adjoining sector provoked Dilgrud wrath, the Dilgrud Empire dispatched its small defensive fleet to Etherea and subjected it to a one week long bombardment that left the Ethereans on the verge of extinction.
This was all the provocation the Anglians needed. Parliament declared war four days after the bombardment's effects were confirmed and the Government was granted emergency war powers, activating the National Army and sortieing the Royal Navy. Compared to the many and vicious naval battles of the last wars the Third War's naval campaign was anti-climactic. WIth no means of resisting the Royal Navy, the Dilgrud Fleet landed on Dilgrudar while Emperor Hortasnian (Jugorian had died a year before the Etherean Massacre) ordered the people of the colonies to "kill as many xenos as you can as you die", as the English translation goes.
The Third Dilgrud War would be the final all-out war between the two polities, lasting three years. Though the Dilgrud fleet did occasionally sortie, rapidly, to attempt extractions of VIPs or to attempt fairly inconsequential attempts at privateering, the war was primarily one of land forces, as colony world after colony world was invaded and fell to the New Anglians. The Dilgrud populations fought to the bitter end, costing the Anglians millions of casualties; the harsh battles also served to create reputations for some of the newly formed army regiments from the new subject races, the Thangarian regiments especially gaining a reputation for ferocity and bravery. 3015 dawned with the two Dilgrud colonial sectors taken, their populations nearly extinct from their refusal to surrender and their tendency to embark in kamikaze charges against Anglian troops. The home secror of the Dilgrud was already under assault, and on May 8th the first Anglian forces landed on Dilgrudar, backed by the might of the Royal Navy which, for the final time, met the Dilgrud fleet in battle and extirpated it in two hours of firing. Dilgrudar would become a bloodbath, with a population of 6 billion (initially 9 billion, but the Tau plague had taken its toll) willingly attacking and refusing to accept surrender. Emperor Hortasnian died fighting on the battlements of his ancient palace; it was said he died wearing ceremonial armor below his powered armor and took the lives of eight Anglian soldiers before being shot down by the assaulting regiments. Tugaliar, a 100 year old claimant to the throne and adopted brother to the Emperor Djakaedan who started the invasion of the sectors near New Anglia in the first place (he was a biological distant cousin, hence why he did not inherit when Djakaedan's actual descendants were extinguished by the Tau plague), took the throne from a place of exile and did the unthinkable; he surrendered. It wasn't merely a request for peace as his adopted brother and nephew had been forced to perform after the prior wars but a complete, total, and abject surrender to the Star Kingdom of New Anglia. With the force of Imperial decree behind the surrender, the remnant forces stopped. Priests and generals who were stunned by the ancient man's decision, as well as the Anglian generals who had expected a fight to the death, both inquired as to Tugaliar's motives, and his response was always the same: "There is no honor in extinction of our people".
The Dilgrud were now at the complete and utter mercy of the Anglians. Their military was gone. A population of forty-four billion Dilgrud pre-war had become barely twenty million, with all their remnant worlds shattered ecologically by the scorched earth campaigns the Emperor Hortasnian had ordered, campaigns that had starved to death billions of his own people - those who survived bombardment and suicidal charges of Anglian forces - and left the worlds almost uninhabitable.. Their very existance as a race, not to mention a state, was at risk. With the exception of the most extreme and violent of Thanagarians, who promoted xenocide of the entire species, the Anglian Government had no concept of what to do with the defeated race. There was no desire to rule them; they were, in the words of Prime Minister Kelvin, "a savage and beastly species". But there was a definite desire to ensure that never again would the Dilgrud pose a threat to the Kingdom of New Anglia.
In the resulting Peace of Dilgrudar, the Star Kingdom of New Anglia trunucated the Dilgrud holdings. Those handful of surviving Dilgrud in the other two sectors - Maktur and Kortur - were unceremoniously deported from their homes and returned to Dilgrudar, freeing up two sectors of shattered worlds for Anglian colonization. Only Dilgrudar and the colonies of its sector remained under Dilgrud rule. That, as well, was altered. The Dilgrud Empire was ordered dissolved, to be replaced by a "clan federation of the various surviving royal houses. Emperor Tugaliar was permitted to retain his rank and to sit as the Head of State of the Dilgrud Confederation, an act of the Anglians to reward the elderly Dilgrud for accepting the inevitable and acting nobly to save his own race despite their disposition against surrender. Ths new government was bound in perpetuity to New Anglia - a realistic outcome as without New Anglia being their effective suzerains the Dilgrud would inevitably get exterminated by another state or race - and granted permanent trade and economic control to the Westminster Government.
The end of the Dilgrud Wars sparked massive celebrations in the worlds of New Anglia. For the first time in over two centuries peace had finally come to the Kingdom. The wars, for all their bloodshed, had also confirmed for the Kingdom a great deal of power through the gaining of the Trill and Dorei worlds and the end of the long rivalry with Thanagar by that race's admission into the Kingdom. Considering that both the Dorei and the Thanagarians now hailed King George XVI as an Emperor, the seventy-four year-old monarch was formally styled as an Emperor by Joint Act of the Parliaments of the Kingdom, a special and very rare occasion when all of the Parliaments of every system in the Star Kingdom, as well as the Dorei monarchies' legislative bodies, met in a common session that took up the 80,000 seat Hopewell Stadium in New Chatham. King George XVI was in personal attendance to greet the unprecedented "Session of the Parliaments of the Kingdom", in which the Prime Minister personally directed business for the sole vote of the common Parliament that proclaimed the title "Emperor of the Anglian Systems" for their monarch, stating it as a title "befitting the power and grace of the King of New Anglia and the other Systems". The Imperial Proclaimation, as it came to be known, was just part of a massive months-long festival in New Chatham and Westminster that celebrated the end of the war and the elimination of the Dilgrud threat.
Over time there has yet been some issues with the Dilgrud. There have, every two decades or so, been necessary campaigns to put down Dilgrud uprisings or to impose peace where warring Dilgrud clans have threatened the Confederation's stability. These have come to be known as the Suppressions and are generally seen as a burden of Empire, though there are some who believe New Anglia should simply cut off ties with the Dilgrud and let them kill each other, if it comes to that. The sentiment of "the life of one Anglian soldier is not worth a million Dilgrud" has become a common refrain and Governments have been known to suffer difficulty if they allow fatalities from the Suppression Campaigns to get too heavy. There is, however, simply no alternative that the majority of Anglians can stomach. The Dilgrud, as a defeated and crushed foe, are to many Anglians their responsibility. Abandoning the Dilgrud would give no solid gain and might only see their extermination or conquest by another race, or a war with such an interloper to protect existing Anglian interests. With no other options the issue seems to remain as it always has been.
The blow is softened, however, by the sheer fact that over the four and a half centuries since the Dilgrud Wars began, the Star Kingdom of New Anglia has become a great and powerful state amongst the interstellar nations, and that such a destiny might not have been possible without the victories over the Dilgrud. It was the Dilgrud wars, ultimately, that led to the rise of New Anglia, though certainly the prospect of future glory and prosperity for their descendants wouldn't have meant much to the many billions slain by them.
”A Radical is a man with both feet planted firmly in the air.” – Franklin Delano Roosevelt
"No folly is more costly than the folly of intolerant idealism." - Sir Winston L. S. Churchill, Princips Britannia
American Conservatism is about the exercise of personal responsibility without state interference in the lives of the citizenry..... unless, of course, it involves using the bludgeon of state power to suppress things Conservatives do not like.
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